Fluoride Recommendations and Preventing Tooth Decay
Fluoride is a naturally occurring substance. Fluoride helps to strengthen the hard outer layer of teeth called enamel. When teeth are stronger they are less likely to get cavities.
Fluoride can be found in many sources, including:
- Naturally-occurring in well water
- In certain foods we eat and beverages we drink
- In most brands of children and adult toothpastes
- As a varnish, gel, foam, or liquid rinse that a dental professional may apply
- As a daily or weekly rinse, a lozenge, or a daily supplement found at the drug store
- Added to some municipal drinking water (water fluoridation)
Fluoride increases the resistance of tooth enamel to acids. Acids are formed by bacteria that are normally present in the mouth and can lead to decay. The presence of low levels of fluoride, up to 1 ppm in drinking water, can reduce cavities as much as 40%. Fluoride helps to reduce the risk of tooth decay in three ways:
- It makes the tooth stronger and more resistant to tooth decay.
- It can repair tooth surfaces where early tooth decay has occurred.
- It inhibits bacteria from producing acids that cause tooth decay.
Water fluoridation is the process whereby the natural level of fluoride in a water supply is adjusted to a level that will optimize dental benefits.
Fluoride additives meet standards for quality and purity before they are added to water at the recommended levels.
In Grey Bruce, only the city of Owen Sound adds fluoride to the water supplies to bring it up to the recommended levels.
Fluoride occurs naturally and is often found in water sources; levels vary in drinking water throughout Ontario. Naturally occurring fluoride can be found in Grey Bruce, particularly in Western Bruce County
Fluoride in Well Water
Fluoride levels in well water can vary considerably. Well owners may test their well water for fluoride. To determine your well water fluoride levels, have your well water tested.
It is recommended that all residents brush their teeth twice daily with fluoridated toothpaste to prevent cavities based on the guidelines below.
Guidelines - Using Fluoride Products to Prevent Tooth Decay
A rice grain sized portion of toothpaste on a child's toothbrush is shown on the left. A pea-sized portion of toothpaste is shown on the right. Image and text Copyright © 2008 Canadian Dental Association
- Toothpaste with fluoride should be used twice a day.
- Children less than three years should have their teeth brushed by an adult, using a rice grain sized portion of fluoridated toothpaste until the child can effectively spit out.
- Once a child can spit out (usually three years of age), they should be supervised using no more than a pea-sized portion of fluoridated toothpaste.
- Too much fluoride from any source, including toothpaste, can cause dental fluorosis. Fluorosis is a cosmetic condition that appears as white chalky spots on the tooth surface. That is why it is important to use the appropriate amount of toothpaste for a person's age. Your dentist can provide you with more information on how much toothpaste is right for you.
- Parents/caregivers with children six years and younger should apply the recommended amount of toothpaste to the toothbrush and supervise to ensure proper brushing.
Fluoride Mouth Rinses
- Fluoride mouth rinses can prevent cavities for people at high risk of cavities.
- Not recommended for children under 6 years of age.
- Talk to your dental professional to determine if they are appropriate for you.
Topical Fluoride/Fluoride Varnish
- Dental professionals may apply fluoride directly to tooth surfaces in the form of fluoride gels, foams and varnishes to prevent tooth decay for individuals at risk.
- Fluoride supplements come in chewable tablets, lozenges or drops and should only be used by people who have a high risk of developing dental decay.
- Talk to a dental professional before taking any fluoride supplements.
More Information on Fluoride:
Canadian Dental Association position on use of fluoride in caries prevention
- The Essential Benefits of Water Fluoridation - Ontario Dental Association
- Fluoride in Drinking-water - The World Health Organization
- Fluoride and Human Health - The World Health Organization
- Fluoride FAQs - The Canadian Dental Association
- Fluoride & Fluoridation - The American Dental Association
- Search results from "fluoride" - Canadian Public Health Association
- Community Water Fluoridation - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Report of the Expert Panel for Water Fluoridation Review - City of Calgary
- Report of the Fort Collins Fluoride Technical Study Group, Fort Collins, Colorado
Fort Collins Fluoride Technical Study Group (2003)
- Health Canada: Findings and Recommendations of the Fluoride Expert Panel 216KB
Health Canada (January 2007)
- Health and environmental concerns regarding the fluoridation of drinking water
Office of the Auditor General of Canada
- Water Fluoridation: An Analysis of the Heath Benefits and Risks 370KB
Institut National de Sante Publique Du Quebec, (2007)
- Forum on Fluoridation
Irish Ministry for Health and Children, (2002)
- Impact of fluoridation of municipal drinking water supply: review of literature 1270KB
Lepo, J., Snyder RA., (2000)
- A Systematic Review of Public Water Fluoridation - McDonagh, M., Whiting P, Bradley M, Cooper J, Sutton A, Chestnutt I, Misso K, Wilson P, Treasure E, Kleijnen J. (2000)
NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York
- Flouride in Our Water (video) - Facts you need to make a healthy choice, the PEW Charitable Trusts